During the Pennsylvanian, fusulinines were common in shallow-water carbonate
banks on the edges of land masses along the Tethyan seaway (i.e., N. Spain, N. China, Korea, N. America). At thh end of the Moscovian, there was a partial extinction event possibly caused by large-scale volcanism (the Jutland basalt
event) that affected Europe and North Africa (Smyth et al., 1995) and the Tethyan during the late Carboniferous contained relatively few fusulinine genera. Fusulinine assemblages recovered in the early Permian when the atmospheric oxygen level reached a peak and fusulinines became diverse and cosmopolitan. The tectonic closure of the East European basins during the Asselian isolated the fusulinines and the East European foraminifera disappeared.
The End Permian extinction resulted in the extinction of all large fusulinine. In fact, 90%-96% of all marine invertebrate species went extinct (Sepkoski, 1986) along with all but one of 90 genera of reptiles, most corals, and brachiopods (McLaren and Goodfellow, 1990; Benton, 2002). The cause of this massive extinction event is under investigation and many theories have been proposed (e.g., climate change, tectonic processes, volcanic activity).The fusulinines never recovered and, therefore, a niche was developed for new fauna and ecosystems to develop in the Mesozoic.
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