Carbon Isotopes

Carbon isotopes
These isotopes are most effectively used for age dating of organic matter and especially in carbonate rich sediments. Also useful in determining carbon sources because different plant groups have seperate and identifiable isotopic signatures.
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"Carbon Isotopes" Introduction to use of oxygen isotopes

Carbon isotopes Bibliography

Bayer, U., & McGhee, G. R., 1986, cyclic patterns in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Implications for time scale calibrations.  Paleoceanography,  1(4), 383–402.

Buggisch, W., & Joachimski, M.M., 2006, Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian of Cen-tral and Southern Europe.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 240(1-2), 68–88.

Chen, D., Tucker, M., Shen, Y., Yans, J., & Preat, A., 2002, Carbon isotope excursions and sea-level change: implications for the Frasnian–Famennian biotic crisis. Journal of the Geological Society, 159(6), 623–626.

Craig, H., 1953, The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 3 (2-3), 53–92.

Degens, E.T., 1966, Biogeochemistry of stable carbon isotopes. NASA Report

Francey, R.J., Allison, C. E., Etheridge, D. M., Trudinger, C. M.,  Enting, I. Leuenberger, G., M., Langenfelds, R. L., Michel, E., and Steele, L. P.,  1999 A 1000-year high precision record of d13C in atmospheric CO2. Tellus (1999), 51B, 170 –193.

Guy, R.D., Fogel, M.L. and Berry, J.A., 1993, Photosynthetic Fractionation of the Stable isotopes of Oxygen and Carbon. Plant Physiology, 101 (1), 37-47.

Grotzinger, J.P., Fike, D.A., and Fischer, W.W.,  2011,  Enigmatic origin of the largest-known carbon isotope excursion in Earth’s history. NATURE GEOSCIENCE  4, 285-291.

Hayes, J.M. Strauss, H., Kaufman, A.J., 1999, The abundance of 13 C in marine organic matter and isotopic fractionation in the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon during the past 800 Ma. Chemical Geology 161, 103 – 125.

Holser, W., 1997, Geochemical events documented in inorganic carbon isotopes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 132(1–4), 173–182.

Immenhauser, A., Della Porta, G., Kenter, J.A.M., & Bahamonde, J.R., 2003, An alternative model for positive shifts in shallow-marine carbonate δ13C and δ18O. Sedimentology, 50(5), 953–959.

Joachimski, M.M., & Buggisch, W., 1993, Anoxic events in the late Frasnian--causes of the Frasnian-Famennian faunal crisis? Geology, 21(8) 675-678.

Joachimski, M.M., Pancost, R.D., Freeman, K.H., Ostertag-Henning, C., & Buggisch, W., 2002, Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Frasnian–Famennian transition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 181(1), 91–109.

Johnson, J.G., Klapper, G., & Sandberg, C.A., 1985, Devonian eustatic fluctuations in Euram-erica. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96(5), 567–587.

Karhu, J.A. and  Holland, H.D., 1996, Carbon isotopes and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Geology, 24 (10), 867-870.

Kaufman, A.J., Knoll, A.H., and Narbonne, G.M., 1997, isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history. Pub. Natl. Ac. Sciences, June 24, 1997, 94 (13), 6600-6605

Kennett, J.P., Cannariato, K.G., Hendy, I.L,  and Behl, R.J., 2000, Carbon Isotopic Evidence for Methane Hydrate Instability During Quaternary Interstadials. Science, 288 (5463), 128-133.

Kump, L.R., & Arthur, M.A., 1999, Interpreting carbon-isotope excursions: carbonates and organic matter. Chemical Geology, 161, 181–198.

Marshall. J.D., Brooks, J.R., and Lajtha, K., Sources of variation in the stable isotopic composition of plants. In: Michener, R. & Lajtha, K. (eds), Stable isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science. Chapter 2.  pp. 22-60.

Playford, P. E., Mclaren, D. J., Orth, C. J., Gilmore, J. S., & Goodfellow, W. D., 1984. Iridium Anomaly in the Upper Devonian of the Canning Basin, Western Australia.  Science,  
226(4673), 437–439.

Prokoph, A., & Veizer, J., 1999, Trends, cycles and nonstationarities in isotope signals of Phanerozoic seawater. Chemical Geology, 161(1–3), 225–240.

Romanek, CS,,  Grossman, E.L., Morse, J,W. , 1992, Carbon isotopic fractionation in synthetic aragonite and calcite: Effects of temperature and precipitation rate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56 (1), 419–430

Saltzman, M.R. and Thomas, E. 2012, Carbon isotope stratigraphy. In: Gradstein et al. (eds) The Geologic Time Scale 2012, v. 1, pp. 207-232.

Saltzman, M.R., Groessens, E., & Zhuravlev, A.V., 2004, Carbon cycle models based on extreme changes in δ13C: an example from the lower Mississippian. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 213 (3–4), 359–377.

Schidlowski, M., Hayes, J.M., and Kaplan, I.R., 1983, Isotopic inferences of Ancient Biochemistries: Carbon, Sulfur, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen. IN: J.W. Schopf (ed), "Earth's Earliest Biosphere: It's Origin and Evolution". Chapter 7, 149-186.

Scholze, M., Kaplan, J.O., Knorr, W., and Heimann, M., 2003, Climate and interannual variability of the atmosphere-biosphere 13CO2 flux. Geo. Res. Lett., 30, 1097, 4 pp.,

Stephens, N.P., & Sumner, D.Y., 2003, Late Devonian carbon isotope stratigraphy and sea level fluctuations,  Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 191(2), 203–219.

Veizer, J. and Hoefs, J. 1976, The nature of O18/O16 and C13/C12 secular trends in sedimentary carbonate rocks. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 40 (11), 1387–1395.

Veizer, J. Ala,D., Azmy, K., Bruckschen, P., Buhl, D., Bruhn, F., Carden, G.A.F., Diener, A., Ebneth, S., Godderis,Y., Jasper,T., Korte, C., Pawellek, F., Podlaha, O.G.. Strauss, H., 1999, 87 Sr/86 Sr, d13 C and d18 O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chemical Geology 161, 59 – 88.

Wang, K., Geldsetzer, H. H. J., Goodfellow, W. D., & Krouse, H. R., 1996, Carbon and sulfur  isotope anomalies across the Frasnian/Famennian extinction boundary, Alberta,
 Canada.  Geology, 24(2), 187–191.

Wang, K., Orth, C. J., Attrep, M., Chatterton, B. D. E., Hou, H., & Geldsetzer, H. H. J., 1991Geochemical evidence for a catastrophic biotic event at the Frasnian/Famennian
        boundary in south China. Geology, 19(8), 776–779.

Zheng, Y., Hong-Fei, H., & Lian Fang, Y., 1993, Carbon and oxygen isotope event markers near the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, Luoxiu section, South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 104(1–4), 97–104.
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